Knowledge of the first horse race is lost in prehistory. Both four-hitch chariot and mounted (bareback) races were held in the Olympic Games of Greece over the period 700–40 bce. Horse racing, both of chariots and of mounted riders, was a well-organized public entertainment in the Roman Empire. The history of organized racing in other ancient civilizations is not very firmly established. Presumably, organized racing began in such countries as China, Persia, Arabia, and other countries of the Middle East and in North Africa, where horsemanship early became highly developed. Thence came too the Arabian, Barb, and Turk horses that contributed to the earliest European racing. Such horses became familiar to Europeans during the Crusades (11th–13th century ce), from which they brought those horses back.
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Future Stars Friday at the Breeders' Cup - Friday had 5 races for the Juveniles on both dirt and turf, headlined by the Sentient Jet Breeders' Cup Juvenile (G1) won by favorite Game Winner. Also on the card, Line of Duty won the Juvenile Turf (G1), Jaywalk won the Juvenile Fillies (G1), Newspaperofrecord won the Juvenile Fillies Turf (G1), and Bulletin won the inaugural Juvenile Turf Sprint. Get the results, charts, and photos here. More photos: Juvenile  -  Juvenile Turf  -  Juvenile Fillies  -  Juvenile Fillies Turf  -  Juvenile Turf Sprint
Jockey Club Gold Cup (G1) Day - Saturday at Belmont Park, Discreet Lover was a huge upset winning the 100th running of the Jockey Club Gold Cup (G1). Also on the card, Channel Maker won the Joe Hirsch Turf Classic (G1), Imperial Hint won the Vosburgh Stakes (G1), and Forty Under won the Pilgrim Stakes (G3). Get the results, charts, and photos here.

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The conditioning program for the different horses varies depending on the race length. Genetics, training, age, and skeletal soundness are all factors that contribute to a horse's performance.[29] The muscle structure and fiber type of horses depends on the breed; therefore, genetics must be considered when constructing a conditioning plan. A horse's fitness plan must be coordinated properly in order to prevent injury or lameness. If these are to occur, they may negatively affect a horse's willingness to learn.[29] Sprinting exercises are appropriate for training two-year-old racehorses, but the number is limited by psychological factors as well as physical.[29] A horse's skeletal system adapts to the exercise it receives. Because the skeletal system does not reach full maturity until the horse is at least four years of age, young racehorses often suffer injuries.[29]

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Woods was used to being the senior partner in gambling teams and getting his way. He never lost his temper, but his mind, once set, was like granite. Benter was also unwilling to budge. Their alliance was over. In a fit of pique, Benter wrote a line of code into the software that would stop it from functioning after a given date—a digital time bomb—even though he knew it would be trivial for Woods to find and fix it later. Woods would keep betting algorithmically on horses, Benter was sure of that. He resolved that he would, too.
In Argentina the sport is known as turf. Some of the most famous racers are Irineo Leguisamo, Vilmar Sanguinetti, Marina Lezcano, Jorge Valdivieso, Pablo Falero and Jorge Ricardo. The Carlos Gardel's tango Por una cabeza is about horse racing, sport of which he was a known fan. Gardel was a good friend of Irineo Leguisamo, who is the most recognized Argentine jockey.
At Happy Valley’s ground level, young women in beer tents passed foamy pitchers to laughing expats, while the local Chinese, for whom gambling is a more serious affair, clutched racing newspapers and leaned over the handrails. At the crack of the starter’s pistol, the announcer’s voice rang out over loudspeakers: “Last leg of the Triple Trio,” he shouted in Australian-accented English, “and away they go!”
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Thirty-two years after he first arrived in Hong Kong, Benter is still betting on horses at venues around the world. He can see the odds change in the seconds before a race as all the computer players place their bets at the same time, and he’s amazed he can still win. He continues tinkering with his model. The latest change: How much does moving to a new trainer improve a horse’s performance?
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Bookies don’t offer even money like friends in a casual betting situation. In the above example, with two evenly matched boxers, a smart bookie will offer 5/6 odds for each. That way, a $10 winning bet would only return $8.30 plus your stake. What does this do for the bookmaker? He can float an equal amount of money on both fighters, winning no matter which fighter actually wins. If they take $1,000 worth of bets on one boxer and $1,000 on the other, the bookie would take in $1,000 but only have to pay out $830, for a guaranteed $170 profit regardless of the outcome.

Throughout 1997 a shadow loomed over Hong Kong. After 156 years of colonial rule, the British were set to hand the territory back to China on July 1. There were news reports of Chinese troops massed at the border, and many islanders feared it would be the end of Hong Kong’s freewheeling capitalism. China tried to reassure residents that their most treasured customs would be protected. “Horse racing will continue, and the dancing parties will go on,” said Deng Xiaoping, the former Communist Party leader.


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Woods was used to being the senior partner in gambling teams and getting his way. He never lost his temper, but his mind, once set, was like granite. Benter was also unwilling to budge. Their alliance was over. In a fit of pique, Benter wrote a line of code into the software that would stop it from functioning after a given date—a digital time bomb—even though he knew it would be trivial for Woods to find and fix it later. Woods would keep betting algorithmically on horses, Benter was sure of that. He resolved that he would, too.
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The conditioning program for the different horses varies depending on the race length. Genetics, training, age, and skeletal soundness are all factors that contribute to a horse's performance.[29] The muscle structure and fiber type of horses depends on the breed; therefore, genetics must be considered when constructing a conditioning plan. A horse's fitness plan must be coordinated properly in order to prevent injury or lameness. If these are to occur, they may negatively affect a horse's willingness to learn.[29] Sprinting exercises are appropriate for training two-year-old racehorses, but the number is limited by psychological factors as well as physical.[29] A horse's skeletal system adapts to the exercise it receives. Because the skeletal system does not reach full maturity until the horse is at least four years of age, young racehorses often suffer injuries.[29]
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