Horse racing in Poland can be dated to 1777, when a horse owned by Polish noble Kazimierz Rzewuski beat the horse of the English chargé d'affaires, Sir Charles Whitworth, on the road from Wola to Ujazdów Castle. The first regular horse racing was organized in 1841 on Mokotów Fields in Warsaw by Towarzystwo Wyścigów Konnych i Wystawy Zwierząt Gospodarskich w Królestwie Polskim (in English, the Society of Horse Racing in Congress Poland). The main racetrack in Poland is Warsaw's Służewiec Racecourse. The industry was severely limited during the Communist era, when gambling, the major source of funding, was made illegal.
A racehorse achieves peak ability at age five, but the classic age of three years and the escalating size of purses, breeding fees, and sale prices have led to fewer races held with horses beyond age four. There are notable exceptions to this, however. Famous races that admit horses older than three include the Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe, the Gran Premio Internacional Carlos Pellegrini in Argentina, the Caulfield and Sydney cups in Australia, the Grande Prêmio São Paulo Internacional in Brazil, the King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes in England, the Gran Premio del Jockey Club and Gran Premio di Milano in Italy, the Emperor’s Cup and Arima Memorial in Japan, the Wellington Cup in New Zealand, the Durban July in South Africa, and the Gran Premio Clásico Simón Bolívar in Venezuela.
The club had come to see the syndicates’ success as a headache. There was no law against what they were doing, but in a parimutuel gambling system, every dollar they won was a dollar lost by someone else. If the everyday punters at Happy Valley and Sha Tin ever found out that foreign computer nerds were siphoning millions from the pools, they might stop playing entirely.
The closed casinos reviewed in this section all once were US-facing online casinos. Six of these casinos were owned by NetAd Management and the Affactive Group affiliate program, while the other four casinos were owned by Milore Limited and the Revenue Jet affiliate program. The owners of all ten sites, Ziv Orenstein and Gery Shalon, were arrested for the JPMorgan-Chase cyber-attack of 2014, so all 10 online casinos were closed. These were considered rogue casinos before they closed, which is why readers should read warnings about sites before depositing money there.

Contemporary organized endurance racing began in California around 1955, and the first race marked the beginning of the Tevis Cup[16] This race was a one-hundred-mile, one-day-long ride starting in Squaw Valley, Placer County, and ending in Auburn. Founded in 1972, the American Endurance Ride Conference was the United States' first national endurance riding association.[15] The longest endurance race in the world is the Mongol Derby, which is 1,000 km (620 mi) long.[17]
Thirty-two years after he first arrived in Hong Kong, Benter is still betting on horses at venues around the world. He can see the odds change in the seconds before a race as all the computer players place their bets at the same time, and he’s amazed he can still win. He continues tinkering with his model. The latest change: How much does moving to a new trainer improve a horse’s performance?
and redemption don’t mix with betting on sports. It’s only a natural instinct to want to make up for a loss. Especially a bad loss. That’s where desperation will get you into trouble. We are in it for a marathon, not a sprint. The bettors that make consistent money are the ones that understand it’s one game at a time. Make sure your goal is to make money over a long period of time. If you are looking for a quick buck, why waste your time and just go to the Roulette table and take your chances on black. I know how it feels to take a team that is -3.5 and they win by 3 points. But Think about all the times where you had the team that was +3.5 in that situation. You tend to only remember that bad losses and not the “bad wins”. Just suck up that bad loss and move on to the next game but don’t force it. Think of yourself as a QB that just threw an interception in that situation, you got to have a short memory.
Your mindset is simply a way of thinking that determines your behaviour, your outlook and your mental attitude. For any given set of betting events ? wins, losses, setbacks, and mistakes ? the differentiating factor in how different people respond to them and accordingly the results that they get will be in their mindsets. Your mindset is the middleman between the events that happen to you and your reactions to those events ? it is the processor that determines how what goes in, comes out. Your mindset can help you to be successful in your sports betting or it can be the barrier to your success.
Free football betting tips and our best soccer predictions are what Punters Lounge have been advising since 1999. However, we're not like most websites as we have an army of the best football tipsters on our World Famous Betting Forum but we're also armed with some amazing and unique football ratings that take away any chance of wrongly assessing matches because of human error or chasing losses.
In recent years, Irish bred and trained horses have enjoyed considerable success in major races worldwide. Various horses achieved victory in one or more of the British 2000 Guineas, The Derby and the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, considered the three most prestigious races in Europe. In the six runnings of the Epsom Derby between 2008 and 2013, Irish horses filled 20 of the first 30 placings, winning the race 5 times.
Don’t like the number offered by the point spread or the over/under? Change it. Bookmakers offer the opportunity to increase or lessen the odds, called “teasing” it, by a particular number, usually about 6 points, though other amounts are available. It must be applied to combined wagers on two or more games, or at least two bets on the same game. For instance, if the New York Giants are favored by 3 points over the Washington Redskins, and the Los Angeles Chargers are favored over the Baltimore Ravens by 2 points, a gambler using a 6-point teaser can lower the line on the Giants game to have the Giants as a 3-point underdog instead of a 3-point favorite (getting 3 points instead of giving 3), and the Chargers as a 4-point underdog instead of a 2-point favorite (getting 4 points instead of giving 2). Lines can be adjusted upward or downward, and they can involve multiple games. In a single game, a bettor can lower or increase the point spread and the under/over total on the same game.
Finally, I considered the measures taken by each operator to protect its players from problem gambling. A safe online casino will work with non-profit making organisations, to identify ways to protect its players, and to provide support for those experiencing problems with gambling habits. Not only do the operators provide advice to their players, and contact details for professional organisations that can help with gambling addiction, they also contribute to organisations financially, investing in the support of problem gamblers and gambling addiction prevention.

Reliable and helpful customer support is an important consideration when assessing a casino. You need to know that help is available should you ever need it. It should also be available through various options, including phone, preferably free of charge, email and probably the most convenient option, live chat. It is also a plus if the customer support is available round the clock, so there is always help on hand whenever you need it. If you prefer to contact customer service by email, then it’s also helpful to know how long it generally takes to get a reply.


Although on-the-go gambling has been in existence for quite some time, it wasn’t until the development of smartphone technology that the industry really started to take off. Because many online casinos were already well-equipped to offer instant versions of their games, many took the task of porting several of their most popular games to their mobile casino platforms. Some of the more advanced casinos now even have a dedicated mobile page that allows players to play most games on their smartphone devices, as well as claim unique bonuses.
I looked at how I assessed the website and software previously on this page, yet there is one factor missing there – the minimum requirements. I included not only hardware requirements but also any software specifications, such as compatible browsers and plugins needed. The majority of the operators listed this info on their sites, and as such, I used this to provide the technical specifications within each casino review. Where this info was lacking from a site, I tried to test the minimum requirements using my own equipment. This did prove challenging, though, as very old equipment is required to match the lowest of requirements. In these cases, I ultimately provided details of the minimum hardware and software requirements I was actually able to confirm with my equipment.
With a burning love for online casinos we strive to improve the industry for your comfort. CasinoTopsOnline.com creates transparency in the industry and improves your chance for bigger wins and better gaming experience. You can play amazing free slots in our exclusive Spinroom casino and find the top online casinos, amazing promotions, free chips and free sign up bonus offers from the comfort of one site.
Today, online betting on sports of all kinds is a $60 billion industry, growing rapidly everywhere outside the U.S., where the practice is mostly banned. The Supreme Court, however, may lift federal restrictions this year, and if it does, American dollars will flood the market, increasing liquidity and the profits of computer teams. Big names from the world of finance have taken notice.
The beginning of the modern era of racing is generally considered to have been the inauguration of the English classic races: the St. Leger in 1776, the Oaks in 1779, and the Derby in 1780. All were dashes for three-year-olds. To these races were later added the Two Thousand Guineas in 1809 and the One Thousand Guineas in 1814. (The St. Leger, Derby, and Two Thousand Guineas have come to constitute the British Triple Crown of horse racing.) During the 19th century, races of the English classic pattern—dashes for three-year-olds carrying level weights—spread all over the world. The French classics are the Prix du Jockey Club (1836), the Grand Prix du Paris (1863), and the Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe (1920).
The current world of online casinos has been called a “bonus culture”. Bonuses are the primary way by which casinos compete with one another. The most popular form of a bonus is a percentage match on a player’s first deposit, often called a “welcome bonus”. A player who takes a 100% match bonus on a €100 deposit, for instance, will begin with a bankroll of €200.
The eligibility of racers is checked the day before they are raced. Before the race, jockeys weigh out and report to the paddock for instructions by trainers and mount up, the identity of the horses having been checked. Horses and riders proceed to the track in a parade to the post for the stewards’ (race officials’) inspection and a brief warm-up gallop. Horses are almost universally started from electrically operated starting gates, the horses being walked or led into their stalls prior to the start of the race. The starter actuates the upward swing of the barrier from the stalls when all are in place. During the race, stewards and patrol judges are alert for racing violations, supplemented by a motion-picture patrol. The finish is photographed by a special camera, and, when the race is close, the picture is awaited before winners are announced. The race’s result does not become official until the jockeys have weighed in and the riders of horses that finished in the money are certified to have carried the proper weight. At weighing in, a jockey, owner, or trainer may claim foul against a horse that interfered with his mount. The judgment of the stewards may result in a horse being lowered in order of finish from first to last. The stewards declare the race official, and then payoffs are flashed on the totalizator. Postrace urine tests are made of winning horses and a sample of the field, and if results show the presence of forbidden substances, the results may be changed on payment of purses but not on bets.
Hard Rock is a bit of an anomaly in that its brick & mortar casinos don’t all offer the same player rewards program. For instance at its Las Vegas hotel, the scheme is a four-tiered program called Backstage Pass, while players in Florida will be treated to the two-tiered Seminole Wild Card. Players visiting Hard Rock Resort and Casino in Biloxi will find that the loyalty program is called Encore Club. And so on.

The smaller you bet as a percentage of your bank the more the maths moves in your favour, if you have £100 and only bet £1 a game then over £100 bets you should be up, if you only do 2 bets of £50 each then although the odds are in your favour you could easily lose both bets. Once you choose your bank and staking plan stick with it as if all your bets are arbs you will win money over time.


Among its jackpot slots Hard Rock features the widely popular progressive Divine Fortune from NetEnt and IGT’s unique Gong Xi Fa Cai, both of which offer players the chance to win life changing jackpots on the regular. Additionally, Hard Rock has also recently added progressive “Mega Jackpot” versions of classics Cleopatra and Siberian Storm with potential prizes over $500,000.
Slots, roulette and blackjack are the most popular UK online casino games, and a balanced range should be offered by an operator to meet its customer’s needs. Yet, there are other games, which although not generally as popular, should still be provided to cater to all tastes. So whilst it is true that you’ll find a smaller selection of other games, like video poker, arcade games, and tables games, such as craps and baccarat, they should still be provided by any decent casino. When assessing and comparing the game selection, I have omitted the live dealer games. These have been put to the test in a separate category, which you will learn more about shortly. Overall, in my opinion, William Hill boasts the best game selection. Not only does it have a good total number of games, but there is also a good balance across all game types, giving plenty of choice to all types of players.
No matter what sport, league or tournament you follow, each day you'll find bettingexpert's community of tipsters posting winning betting tips. Whether it's football, tennis, basketball, baseball, ice hockey or American football, just to name a few, our committed and profitable tipsters will help you make money following their tips. What is the best free tips website? That answer is simple, bettingexpert. There's no better site on the internet for free betting tips.
When we hear “Free spins” we always know that online slots are involved. With a free spins bonus, online casino may award you a number of free games in the most popular or featured slots. The information about this kind of bonuses can usually be found on the casino website promotion page. In most case, you can get your free spins after making a deposit and the bet amount will be fixed during the game.
In 1980 he’d just applied for a job as a night cleaner at McDonald’s when his buddies introduced him to the man who would change his life. Alan Woods was the leader of an Australian card-counting team that had recently arrived in Las Vegas. Woods was then in his mid-30s, with a swoop of gray hair and cold blue eyes. Once an insurance actuary with a wife and two kids, he’d decided one day that family life wasn’t for him and began traveling the world as an itinerant gambler.
Although on-the-go gambling has been in existence for quite some time, it wasn’t until the development of smartphone technology that the industry really started to take off. Because many online casinos were already well-equipped to offer instant versions of their games, many took the task of porting several of their most popular games to their mobile casino platforms. Some of the more advanced casinos now even have a dedicated mobile page that allows players to play most games on their smartphone devices, as well as claim unique bonuses.
We provide customers with a huge range of betting opportunities with all sports covered including Football, Tennis, Cricket and Basketball. Bet on a host of pre-match and In-Play markets on every live Premier League and Champions League Football match, take advantage of numerous betting opportunities on Grand Slam Tennis, plus enjoy all the exciting International Cricket action. You can also access the same huge range of markets and events on your mobile or tablet, including our fantastic live In-Play service, through bet365 On The Move. To add to the In-Play excitement, we offer Live Streaming on over 140,000 events live to your PC every year. Highlights include Masters Series Tennis tournaments and matches from some of the top domestic Soccer leagues in the world. Find out all the latest Sports Betting information as it happens with our dedicated Betting News site.
With the increasing popularity of smartphones and tablets, it comes as no surprise that online casinos have developed their games to work on mobile devices. Yet when it comes to mobile development, casinos were a bit late to the party. As such, there’s still quite a limited selection of mobile games available for most casino apps. There is a lot to be discussed regarding mobile casino apps, and you can find out everything you need to know in the mobile app page.

FILE This Nov. 20, 2018 file photo shows a scrolling video board with basketball scores reflected in the ceiling of the new sports book at Resorts Casino in Atlantic City, N.J. The race to legalize sports betting is on now that the U.S. Supreme Court has allowed it in all 50 states, but will it provide enough extra tax revenue to make much of a difference for schools, roads or pension debt? (AP Photo/Wayne Parry)


Woods left the bulk of his estate to his two children in Australia and gave token sums to various ex-girlfriends, including a Filipina who said he’d fathered her child. A wake was held in a bar at the Happy Valley racetrack and attended by an eclectic crowd of gamblers and hustlers. To the last, Woods never believed that Benter had won the 2001 Triple Trio and given up the jackpot.
The weekend is a punters paradise and we have tips for the whole weekend. From the lunch time kick off on Saturday all the way through to the late night South American Sunday leagues. We have a full schedule of accumulators which includes win-draw-win, both teams to score and both teams to score and win. Our correct score double tips are unique and you won’t find them any other place on the internet. We also cover other sports on the weekend from NBA, NFL MLB, NHL, Golf and Tennis which you can find on our home page!
18+. New customers only, *10 Free Spins on mobile verification (UK Only), 3 day expiry on Free Spins. **100% deposit match up to £200. Available on selected games only. 7-day expiry on Bonus. 40x wagering (max bet £5) before Bonus Balance can be withdrawn. Wagering is with real money first. Game contribution weightings apply to wagering requirements. £10 min deposit + 2.5% fee (min 50p). Not available using Neteller or Skrill. Cash balance withdrawable anytime + £2.50 fee.
Yes, here at SBAT we provide betting tips at the weekend. We understand punters love the weekend coupons, so we provide as many tips as possible as early as possible. We provide full predictions and tips on a host of leagues that play on Saturdays and Sundays so you can get all your weekend coupon betting tips here to ensure your gambling is always good at the weekend. We understand that punters on the weekend are looking for a good Saturday acca or Sunday acca, so we will always provide them.
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Where can you see the best free sports betting tips? We have developed a tipster rating algorithm. Using our algorithm we identify the best tips of the day. Our rating shows you which tipsters to follow. Our hot tips page lists the best tips from these tipsters. To discover more about a particular tipster click on their User Profile. Our hot tipsters use cutting edge betting strategies. The result is the best free sports betting tips available.
No download or instant play online casino. That’s definitely what you need to start from if you have never played gambling games before. The no download casino, obviously, doesn’t require any downloads and you can play the real money slots right in your browser. Even though some of the casino games providers are already creating the HTML5 slots, in most cases you will still need the Flash plugin installed. To play in no download casinos you will just need to enter the casino website, log in or create account, make a deposit and start playing real money games. It’s fast, it’s easy and it doesn’t consume anything on your hard drive.
If you want to play real money online casino games, then you may find the choice overwhelming. With so many casino sites to choose from, how are you supposed to decide which are the best and ultimately where you should be playing? That’s where you can benefit from this website. To help you find the best online casino, I have thoroughly researched, reviewed and rated the biggest names in the industry with the aim to give you all the info you need about the top 10 online casinos. You won’t just find the best sites though – you’ll also get plenty of comprehensive information about each operator in minute detail. To have a clear idea of how to get the most out of my reviews, here’s a rundown showing you the testing criteria for each provider. You can be confident that you’ll have a concise and accurate overview of them all.
The only exception to this rule applies to live games. The majority of tables will allow unlimited numbers of players, so if you opt for roulette, baccarat, Three Card Poker or Casino Hold’em, you can enjoy the action right away, no waiting involved. If your game of choice is blackjack, then this is where you may find that you have to queue. A maximum of seven players can join a blackjack table at any one time, so once they fill up, you may have to wait your turn. However, you will often find numerous tables available to play live blackjack at an online casino, so you will generally not have to wait very long. What’s more, there is often the option to bet behind, so even when a table is full, unlimited numbers of players are still able to bet on the game that is taking place.
Blended Citizen eats up the Jeff Ruby Steaks (G3) - Saturday, Blended Citizen held off Pony Up by a neck to win the Jeff Ruby Steaks (G3) at Turfway Park while favorite Hazit stumbled and finished last. Also on the card, Go Noni Go won the Bourbonette Oaks (G3), Camelot Kitten won the Kentucky Cup Classic, Alternative Route won the Rushaway, and Sky Flower won the Latonia. Get the results, charts, and photos here.
Each of the casinos listed below provides essential information at a glance to assist our visitors by providing a general overview of the most important facts. For those players seeking more details and information on the respective sites we suggest clicking the “Review” link associated with the various brands for a full expert casino ratings and review of the listed site. Unfortunately, if you're a player from one of the following, NJ, PA, NY, or DE, US states you will not be permitted to play at the casinos we feature below.
But now we have this page that will help you understand how all that online gambling things work, what is an online casino, how to chose the best and the most reliable one, which casino bonuses you can get and what points you should pay your attention to before creating your first online casino account in order not to be cheated by fraudsters. Here you will also find the complete list of trusted online casinos with the best online casino reviews where you can play your favorite real money slots. You can read through the whole article on use the menu on the left to navigate the page and check only the passages you are mostly interested in.

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This is perhaps due to the fact that similarly to Malta, the small island nation is known to be a tax haven. The country’s Gambling Supervision Commission makes sure to ensure that casinos which are licensed through them have fair games and are secure. Thus, casinos licensed and regulated by the Isle of Man’s Gambling Supervision Commission are definitely safe to use.
Looking for a tip for this weekend's Premier League action? You'll find it here. Want a tip for the NBA? bettingexpert has it. Is tennis your sport? Basketball? Ice Hockey? You'll find those and more on the bettingexpert betting tips board. We also offer a variety of tips for bet types including Asian handicap tips, 1x2 tips, and over/under tips. The pure range and diversity of winning tips posted at bettingexpert is truly amazing. So if you're looking for the best free tips available for free, bettingexpert's Betting Tips page is the place to visit.
MacKenzee Hansen  · That would be disgraceful for justify to even come into comparison with secretariat. Justify was not a great horse nothing compared to secretariat and it kills me so many people think he's the cats meow. If he becomes a standard that sinks lower for any horses racing after 3 years of age and more and more stallions in a shed that truthfully haven't accomplished much. And I totally agree southern humor this is why more and more horse racing sinks downward. Oh my god steroid era?? At least secretariat beat unrestricted races and raced after the triple crown. Plus horses justify beat and 2 I can think of off hand HAVE NOT WON A decent RACE SINCE HE BEAT THEM. I cant believe people like you who worship this horse it's literally insane. Ps.... justifys derby time was the 4th worst from 1960 to now. · 3 hours ago
Naming a Thoroughbred - Happy New Year! All Thoroughbreds, regardless of their actual date of birth, are given an official birthday of January 1st to keep the age groups easily defined for race conditions. Here are the rules for picking a name. v 2017 Year in Review - As we near the end of the year, it is time to take a look back at the highs and lows of 2017 and remember those people and horses that we lost.
The RTP for each game is usually found in the game rules on the casino website. Many operators also publish actual payout reports from independent testing agencies such as eCOGRA and GLI, detailing the actual percentage returned to players across specific game categories during a particular time period. However, there are some casinos, such as Betway, that list no information regarding the theoretical return for the individual games. Yet, Betway does provide actual payout reports from eCOGRA detailing the overall amount returned to players for slots, poker games and table games. This means that you lose the option of seeing specific details for particular games, but it gives you an overall picture of the average amount returned to players across various game categories. For this omission of detail, I deducted a point from Betway. In the interests of transparency, I would like to see Betway also include the theoretical RTP for individual games in the game rules.
Our betting experts try to vary among football leagues as well as possible. You won't only see the top leagues, but at times also leagues of lower classes or countries that are not as present in the media. But especially such leagues can be exciting for betting friends, becasue the strength of the teams varies a lot, which can lead to interesting betting opportunities. Additionally you can find many insider tips of the day, because our tipping experts often grasp some good hints. In the football sector we now cover 22 different football leagues that we provide betting tips for. We try to constantly expand our tipping portfolio and to provide more and more details. We also try to expand our offer with other sports. In the course of next year we plan to add at least 2-3 new sports in order to be able to provide more alternatives. When you have proposals for improvement, we are happy about any kind of feedback. We always try to directly implement proposals of our betting friends that visit our site daily.
On each real cash online casino website, you will see a wide list of gambling games that differ from one casino to another. Most of the online casinos limit their game lists to the slot games only while some of them prefer to mix them up with other casino games such as blackjack, video poker, scratch cards, baccarat and so on. Some of the no download casinos may seem to have the wider demo games list than we do but we try to keep up and regularly update our game list with the newest slots. Demo game means that you can try playing the casino game for free and decide whether you want to spend some money on it or not. It’ s a perfect option for inexperienced players that don’t know how all that gambling things work and need to practice for a while before switching to the real money games and making their own betting strategy.
Bookies don’t offer even money like friends in a casual betting situation. In the above example, with two evenly matched boxers, a smart bookie will offer 5/6 odds for each. That way, a $10 winning bet would only return $8.30 plus your stake. What does this do for the bookmaker? He can float an equal amount of money on both fighters, winning no matter which fighter actually wins. If they take $1,000 worth of bets on one boxer and $1,000 on the other, the bookie would take in $1,000 but only have to pay out $830, for a guaranteed $170 profit regardless of the outcome.
Within six weeks, he found himself playing blackjack in Monte Carlo, served by waiters in dinner jackets. He felt like James Bond, and his earnings grew to a rate of about $80,000 a year. Benter abandoned any idea of returning to college. When his mother’s friends in Pittsburgh asked how his studies were going, she told them, “Bill’s traveling right now.”
Hard Rock’s next attempt to get something going in New Jersey came in 2015. This time around, the plan wasn’t to build in struggling Atlantic City, but to look north to the Meadowlands. Given the Meadowlands prime position near NYC and the most populated areas of New Jersey, Hard Rock CEO Jim Allen saw a booming opportunity for the right casino to generate even more revenue than the Borgata.
In order to play real money casino games, you will first need to fund your player account. Deposits should be swift, straightforward and safe. The other considerations to take into account are the choice of payment methods available and any fees attached to deposits. A good operator will provide a large choice of payment methods which are free from charges. The vast majority of online casinos will accept payments by credit and debit cards, but when it comes to alternative methods, there can be quite a lot of variation from one operator to the next. Also, differences can be found in the minimum and maximum limits placed on deposits and withdrawals, and also there can be considerable variations regarding processing times, particularly for withdrawals. Fast withdrawals are very important to players, so you will see here that I have included the withdrawal times for the operators for you to see at a glance how they compare. I have used the timescales for withdrawals via credit/debit card and e-wallets to provide a general overview.
Charles II (reigned 1660–85) became known as “the father of the English turf” and inaugurated the King’s Plates, races for which prizes were awarded to the winners. His articles for these races were the earliest national racing rules. The horses raced were six years old and carried 168 pounds (76 kg), and the winner was the first to win two 4-mile (6.4-km) heats. The patronage of Charles II established Newmarket as the headquarters of English racing.
Hard Rock’s next attempt to get something going in New Jersey came in 2015. This time around, the plan wasn’t to build in struggling Atlantic City, but to look north to the Meadowlands. Given the Meadowlands prime position near NYC and the most populated areas of New Jersey, Hard Rock CEO Jim Allen saw a booming opportunity for the right casino to generate even more revenue than the Borgata.

As racing became big business, governments entered wagering with offtrack betting, which was very beneficial to racing in Australia, New Zealand, and France and less so in England and New York City. In the United States, illegal bookmaking offtrack became the province of organized crime. Legal offtrack betting parlours proliferated during the late 20th century but were less prevalent in the 21st because of the growth of online gambling and the general decline in horse racing’s popularity.


Almost no one expected the Miami Dolphins to beat the Patriots on Dec. 9, a game in which New England was favored by 7 1/2 points. But an improvisational pass and running sequence that saw Miami players toss the ball to one another en route to the goal line led to a game winning touchdown as time expired. It happens, folks, a lot more than one might think.

The original King’s Plates were standardized races—all were for six-year-old horses carrying 168 pounds at 4-mile heats, a horse having to win two heats to be adjudged the winner. Beginning in 1751, five-year-olds carrying 140 pounds (63.5 kg) and four-year-olds carrying 126 pounds (57 kg) were admitted to the King’s Plates, and heats were reduced to 2 miles (3.2 km). Other racing for four-year-olds was well established by then, and a race for three-year-olds carrying 112 pounds (51 kg) in one 3-mile (4.8-km) heat was run in 1731. Heat racing for four-year-olds continued in the United States until the 1860s. By that time, heat racing had long since been overshadowed in Europe by dash racing, a “dash” being any race decided by only one heat, regardless of its distance.

Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport, typically involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys (or sometimes driven without riders) over a set distance for competition. It is one of the most ancient of all sports, as its basic premise – to identify which of two or more horses is the fastest over a set course or distance – has been unchanged since at least classical antiquity.[1]
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