Professional sports bettors have to worry about variance more than any other type of gambler. Working against the forces of variance means managing your bankroll over the course of the season to avoid the negative possibilities that could totally empty your wagering account. Professional sports bettors have the time and resources necessary to calculate these variances, and there are even a few pieces of software out there that can help you figure out your ideal bet in the face of negative variance. But the bottom line is that professional sports bettors would dream of having a 55% winning record, simply because it guarantees you’re beating the house.
A racehorse achieves peak ability at age five, but the classic age of three years and the escalating size of purses, breeding fees, and sale prices have led to fewer races held with horses beyond age four. There are notable exceptions to this, however. Famous races that admit horses older than three include the Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe, the Gran Premio Internacional Carlos Pellegrini in Argentina, the Caulfield and Sydney cups in Australia, the Grande Prêmio São Paulo Internacional in Brazil, the King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes in England, the Gran Premio del Jockey Club and Gran Premio di Milano in Italy, the Emperor’s Cup and Arima Memorial in Japan, the Wellington Cup in New Zealand, the Durban July in South Africa, and the Gran Premio Clásico Simón Bolívar in Venezuela.
Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine sports. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC and were important in the other Panhellenic Games. It continued although chariot racing was often dangerous to both driver and horse, which frequently suffered serious injury and even death. In the Roman Empire, chariot and mounted horse racing were major industries. From the mid-fifteenth century until 1882, spring carnival in Rome closed with a horse race. Fifteen to 20 riderless horses, originally imported from the Barbary Coast of North Africa, were set loose to run the length of the Via del Corso, a long, straight city street; their time was about 2½ minutes.