Value betting is a pretty simple concept. You use sharp bookmakers (those that don’t limit winning players) as an indicator for value. What I mean by this is that if the bookmaker Pinnacle is offering Man Utd at 2.0 to beat West Ham. Whilst Stan James has Man Utd priced 2.15 for the same game. We can estimate that Stan James are offering us a value bet.
“I think they will all participate and would be shocked if they didn’t,” Pennsylvania Rep. Robert Matzie told the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette earlier this month. “In sports-crazy Pittsburgh and sports-crazy Philadelphia, you’re going to see it bring a lot more people into the casino, watching the big-screen TVs, and when they get those people in the door to bet they’ll also hopefully drop money at the tables or in the slots.”

The short answer here is that bookies making money has nothing at all to do with your betting. It is almost unheard of for a single customer to be allowed to place enough bets to sink a single book all on his own. High rollers in sports betting get special privileges in terms of their maximum bet size, but these privileges often change with the bettor’s luck—maximums get raised after the bettor sees big losses and decreased (sharply) when the bettor starts to get lucky.
Before you decide to buy picks, ask yourself: What is my sports betting budget (bankroll) and am I able to control it? If you are laying down $1 or $5 bets on a couple of games every week, then you certainly shouldn’t be spending more than that trying to get winning picks for even money. If you are placing small wagers like that, you will likely end up paying more for your picks than you will end up winning from those bets. Paying for picks is only worth it if you are going to end up winning more money than you paid for the picks in the first place.
Legalization of online sports betting will be a state-by-state affair. I am proud to say my home state of New Jersey has been the U.S. leader in modernizing gambling laws. Paddy Power Betfair also runs “retail” sports books on location at casinos and racetracks; on Saturday, it begins running the sports book at N.J.’s Meadowlands Racetrack. You’ll be able to bet on the World Cup final and other sports there. The company will start online betting in N.J. for football in time for the NFL season, followed by college football, pro basketball and hockey. The popularity of “international” sports like soccer remains to-be-determined, Levin says.
If you want to make money, you need to start with a betting bankroll capable of absorbing losses. If you're going to bet in units, with an average bet of 1 unit, I would recommend a bankroll of at least 50 units. Minimum. OK so maybe you can only afford a bankroll of $1000, which means your average unit will be $20. Sounds small time I know and you want to be a high roller. Well a $1000 bankroll can quickly turn into a substantial amount with consistent value recognition and an intelligent staking plan. Lets say you bet 200 bets a year. And for argument sake lets say they are all of 1.90 odds, and lets say you hit at a 54% strike rate. Well with a fractional Kelly staking plan at the end of those 200 bets, depending on your winning consistency which should even out over a long term, your bankroll will be in the ballpark of $1100.00. Yeah I hear what you're saying - that's only 100.00 profit over the year. Well, that's just betting 200 bets a year, with a 2.6% average return per bet.
Horse race betting is usually an activity tied to the Southeast, but Arizona is no stranger when it comes to hosting great races. Residents can place their wagers at tracks such as Turf Paradise Race Course, Rillito Downs Park Racetrack, and Yavapai Downs Racecourse. But, for those looking for a more convenient way to place wagers, they’ll be happy to know that they can do so with the same sports betting sites we’ve previously recommended. Bovada, SportsBetting, BetOnline, and 5Dimes each come with a state of the art online racebook. There also promotions and bonuses for using their racebook which may give you an edge the next time you want to bet on your favorite pony.
All-everything guard Donovan Mitchell has seen an uptick in his production of late. But even Mitchell's 38 points on 12-of-24 shooting on Friday night wasn't enough for the team to overcome a 114-104 loss to Memphis. Coach Quin Synder and his player personnel are rarely successful unless they defend at a high level. And with the short bench the ability to do so has been an issue. Furthermore it will continue to be such in the latter part of the regular season.
For example, take a player like David Beckham who had played at all the highest levels a professional soccer player could have hoped to play at. As his career wound down he made the move to the United States and the LA Galaxy. The Galaxy paid handsomely for Beckham’s services, but they received a star player with still a few years left in the tank and someone who put MLS on the global map.
Head-to-Head. In these bets, bettor predicts competitors results against each other and not on the overall result of the event. One example are Formula One races, where you bet on two or three drivers and their placement among the others. Sometimes you can also bet a “tie”, in which one or both drivers either have the same time, drop out, or get disqualified.
Details of the bill as it pertains to sports betting include: The state’s lottery serving as the overseer of implementation and ongoing regulation; five sports betting licenses being made available at an initial cost of $250,000 each; sports betting revenue being taxed at 15 percent, with 2.5 percent of it going to the lottery for administrative fees.
Ray’s background in engineering, along with his meticulous nature and fascination with numbers, parlay into his ability to analyze data; keep records; notice emerging trends; and find new handicapping angles and figures. While specializing in thoroughbred racing, Ray also handicaps harness racing, Quarter Horse racing, baseball, football, hockey, and has been rumored to have calculated the speed and pace ratings on two squirrels running through his backyard.

The first advantage here is a significant one. If you devote all your time to one single sport, it’s entirely possible that you can become a genuine expert. This will greatly improve your chances of beating the bookmakers. Remember, they have experts working for them. You really need to match the knowledge of their experts to be able to win money consistently. If you can actually learn MORE than them, then you’ll be in a good position to beat them.
Jazz power forward Derrick Favors has shown signs of fatigue as of late. He scored just three points in Friday's loss to the Griz. And as was the case for the Trail Blazers the Jazz face an OKC club that has defeated them in the first three of four regular season games. The Thunder outlasted the Blazers in Portland on their current road trip for a season sweep. Expect this to be the case tonight in a matchup that favors the Thunder in an underdog role. 
The ICC shares anti-corruption jurisdiction with national cricket federations, all of which have anti-corruption rules substantially identical to those of the ICC. The ICC has elaborate mechanisms for determining whether it or a national federation will take action under the relevant anti-corruption code. In general, the ICC has either exclusive or priority jurisdiction over international matches, while national federations have responsibility for actions relating only to domestic matches.
These recreational bettors account for the majority of people who bet on sports, but there are also plenty of people who bet primarily to make money. This doesn’t mean that they don’t still enjoy themselves, it’s just that their motivations are different. They generally put a lot more thought into the wagers that they make, and dedicate some time to researching and analyzing the various factors that can affect the outcome of games and events.
If you place two $100 bets, and you win, you’ll collect $440. You should consider leaving a tip around five percent of your winnings. Yes, that’s a $22 tip, but you just made a huge win, and surely you can spring for a twenty-spot for the guy who helped you win it. If you tip around the five percent mark regularly, when you win, you’re way more likely to get free drinks, which is about all you’re going to get comp-wise at the sportsbook.
Football is the most popular sport on Earth and bookmakers take an incredible number of bets on it every year. Almost all bookies offer 24-hour live soccer betting but some do a better job than others when it comes to giving punters the full package. The very best football betting sites post great odds on a huge variety of soccer markets and have regular promotions such as bore draw and other cashback bonuses. For example, if there is a football match being played anywhere then Paddy Power will certainly be offering all sorts of profitable betting opportunities on it. They also have their “2 Up – You Win” promotion that is specifically geared towards football bettors. If the team you bet on takes a two-goal lead at any point in the game then you automatically win. What a great deal for football fans!!
We’ve all been there. After a string of rough losses or a losing streak, there is a temptation for bettors to forgo their process and chase their losses. This, of course, only makes matters worse. Chasing your losses will put a serious dent in your long-term profits and may ultimately derail your sports betting career, especially if you wager more than your normal amount when you suffer a losing streak, in hopes of making back your money.
“All of us at Caesars Entertainment are thrilled to be the first-ever casino partner of the NFL, the most prominent sports league in North America,” said Mark Frissora, president and CEO of Caesars Entertainment. “Combining the league’s 180 million fans with our 55 million Total Rewards loyalty program members will expose millions of people to the exclusive and exciting year-round opportunities at our properties.”
We’ve all been there. After a string of rough losses or a losing streak, there is a temptation for bettors to forgo their process and chase their losses. This, of course, only makes matters worse. Chasing your losses will put a serious dent in your long-term profits and may ultimately derail your sports betting career, especially if you wager more than your normal amount when you suffer a losing streak, in hopes of making back your money.
I don’t believe that the term ‘gambling’ applies to what I do. I sell information to subscribers, with which they can take positive expectation positions in uncertain markets. With correct financial optimization and bankroll management, long term risks are nominal compared to the risks of investing in other, more conventional markets. Just as a single stock may go up or down in a day, any one team may win or lose a given game. But as long as the investor maintains a long-term perspective, understands variance, and doesn’t over-extend themselves or bet more than they can easily handle, risk can be highly mitigated, and they can earn a very attractive risk adjusted return.
One of those is David “Vegas Dave” Oancea, who pled guilty in federal court in January for charges involving using phony Social Security numbers at Las Vegas casinos in transactions of more than $1.2 million. Oancea initially faced 19 felonies, but ultimately pled guilty to a misdemeanor charge by admitting to causing violations of record keeping and procedures.
There's been so much buzz about the 18-year-old Englishman plying his trade in the Bundesliga, and rightfully so -- he already has four goals and six assists in 10 games domestically, and one apiece in three Champions League games. But Borussia Dortmund are playing at Atletico Madrid, which should be difficult, despite the fact Dortmund beat them 4-0 in Germany.
The sports books line is flawed if it does not attract the same action amount on both sides. From a smart handicapper’s point of view, the line is flawed when it does not compute to his predicted outcome of the game. A weaker team can actually become the favorite if public sentiment is with that team. When this happens the underdog presents a huge overlay for the seasoned handicapper tilting the odds in his favor. This is the contrarian principle and why many smart handicappers go against the general betting public.
There’s no doubting that PNC Park is one of the most beautiful baseball stadiums in the country. The Pirates have been asking the state for funds to maintain the stadium for the past five to seven years. Despite being a profitable business, it probably makes sense that the state pay for upkeep since the residents of Pennsylvania paid to build the stadium.
When it comes to the Casino games, there is House Edge you can’t mathematically overcome. It’s the margin casino build in all through the games, and as long as the house edge exists the EV is negative. The % of the house edge depends on the game. According to The Wizard of Odds, it ranges between the lowest o.3% of Blackjack and 25% of Keno. The American Roulette is 5.6%, means if you stake $100 on Roulette you will lose average $5.6. Don’t misunderstand, always Variance comes in, thus you are not necessary to lose $5.6 every time when you bet $100 but the more you bet the closer to this number the loss will be. Say, if you stake $10,000 x 1 or $5,000 x 2, you may make a lot or lose everything, this is due to Variance. However you play $100 x 100 or $10 x 1,000 times, then you will quite likely to lose $560. That’s how mathematics of EV works.
It wasn’t that long ago that the popular and mainstream sports were all we could bet on. Finding a bookmaker willing to take wagers on the “minor” sports was nearly impossible. This is no longer the case though, as these days we can bet on virtually any sport that’s played professionally: even the most obscure ones. Although these don’t offer the same advantages that we’ve outlined above, one big advantage they have is that the bookmakers don’t give them the same level of attention.
This depends upon the popularity of the event, but in general, bookmaker odds will be more a reflection of what they expect the general public to play, rather than on the actual probabilities of either outcome. Of course, it's not quite that simple, but in general, bookmakers will set their odds so as to attract betting on either side of the odds, so as to balance their liability and take their commission.
Although betting while sober seems like common sense, you’d be surprised how many people bet on sports under the influence. Is it a coincidence that the Las Vegas casinos offer free alcoholic drinks while you are gambling? I don’t think so. I don’t want to sound like your mother here, but betting while under the influence will impair your judgement and should definitely be avoided if you want to become a winning sports bettor.
As the statement points out, NCAA rules bar student-athletes or employees of the athletic departments of member schools from wagering on sports, a policy that won�t be changing anytime soon. But the new study will try to figure out what impact legalized betting will have on NCAA operations, and what the organization might be able to do in response.
The biggest issue for the actual betting decision selection is the absence of shopping for a better line. There are over a dozen different point spread lines in Nevada. Entity groups and their investors get access to only one line from CG Technology managed sports books. This restriction is the main problem of trying to find an edge when placing a bet.
OKC fell by eight to the Los Angeles Clippers Friday night. The squad seems off balance, and several players have criticized the officiating lately, Paul George in particular who was fined for ripping refs after the loss to the Clips. To be fair, the Thunder might have a point (their opponents have been awarded a combined 93 free throws last two games), but wasting energy on such matters won't do them any good.   

This is a relatively new one for sports bettors to deal with, as many online sportsbooks now have casino-style gaming, which is too much for some sports bettors, including some very good sports bettors, to walk away from. It's not unheard of for a solid sports bettor to generally show a profit each week, but give that money back, plus a little extra, playing the casino games their sportsbooks offer.
If we haven’t stressed it enough throughout our site, we’ll do it again here. Choosing a reputable sportsbook with a long history of paying players on time is absolutely crucial. There is no use betting sports online unless you can be almost certain that you will be paid if you win. We offer a wealth of information on this topic, including an extensive list of scam sportsbooks that are still operating. There’s no reason to risk using poorly reviewed sites when there are tons of options that offer excellent odds and payout quickly.
This is a Free NBA play on the LA Clippers. A week ago the Boston Celtics were in Houston, losing by a score of 115-104 to the Rockets. It marked a seventh loss in a 10 game span, and Kyrie Irving wasn't exactly complimentary of his teammates after the game. “We just weren’t covering up for one another consistently enough,” Irving said. “That’s really what it comes down to.” So now just seven days later, the Celtics are coming off three straight wins. As impressive as it was to beat the Warriors at Oracle Arena, you could say that proves they are as good as Phoenix, as the Suns won in Oakland on Sunday. They followed that up with wins over the Kings and the Lakers. Now they've had two nights off in LA, and they play the Clippers on Monday in the final game of this road trip. This looks like a trouble spot for a team that might still have plenty of issues. The Clippers might not have a BIG3, in fact they don't even have one real superstar player. They do have a solid team though and they are on the verge of clinching a playoff spot in the West. LA has won seven of their last nine overall, and they are 5-1 ATS in their last six versus the Celtics. Take LAC. GL, 
The sports books line is flawed if it does not attract the same action amount on both sides. From a smart handicapper’s point of view, the line is flawed when it does not compute to his predicted outcome of the game. A weaker team can actually become the favorite if public sentiment is with that team. When this happens the underdog presents a huge overlay for the seasoned handicapper tilting the odds in his favor. This is the contrarian principle and why many smart handicappers go against the general betting public.
Now while mainstream bookmakers have their critics, it's valuable to have accounts (if possible!) with at least three at any one time, even if they have restricted your action. Why? Well it's simply a matter of options. While bookmakers like Pinnacle consistently offer great odds on most sports and leagues, there will be times when the best prices can be found at bookmakers such as, William Hill, Ladbrokes and Luxbet. Popular bookmakers such as these will also offer more varied betting markets. Again, long term success is very much a matter of opportunity meeting options.
In Asian betting markets, other frequently used formats for expressing odds include Hong Kong, Malaysian, and Indonesian-style odds formats. Odds are also quite often expressed in terms of implied probability, which corresponds to the probability with which the event in question would need to occur for the bet to be a break-even proposition (on the average).
When it comes to bonuses, payout options and speeds, and betting limits – SportsBetting.ag is one of the best sportsbooks online. They have a Welcome Bonus of 50% Up To $1,000 and also have a cryptocurrency bonus and life-time reload bonuses. SportsBetting’s wagering limits are among the highest for betting sites servicing Americans. Their payouts are fast, and they accept accounts from all 50 U.S. states.
This comes down to a matter of which kind of websites you are trying to use. Arizona laws don’t specifically outlaw online sports wagering which is why many people feel safe in using that method. However, there are no online options provided by sportsbooks within the state and if you tried to use one that is being operated in another state you risk breaking federal laws. This is why the only way to access legal Arizona sports betting is to use online offshore sports gambling sites. Their sportsbooks are regulated and operated in countries outside the US. This means that Arizona state laws and federal laws have no jurisdiction over them and why they are a safe option.
Finding that specialty is easier than it is with other sports as well. Being a relatively new area of sports betting, esports books are often only marginally better, if not worse, than the smart bettor at calculating the odds for events. Gaining this strategic edge gives you the power you need to find the most valuable bets among the sportsbooks who might have less of a grasp of the odds when it comes to esports.
Soccer truly is a global game. Unlike a sport like American football, any number of leagues from multiple countries might be pursuing the services of the same player soccer at the same time. A highly sought after soccer player could be purchased or “transferred” to any number of destinations, whereas the NFL is really the only competing force for top-end talent.
For sports bettors, the vig is more expensive than the spreads on a typical Wall Street stock trade. But the growth of online betting—mostly illegal in the U.S.—has started to shrink the vig below 10% in some places, which should eventually make betting a better deal for bettors. That’s what you’d expect, says Toby Moskowitz, a professor of finance at the Yale School of Management and one of the principals with the $226 billion hedge fund manager AQR Capital Management.
But you give the Team A far greater winning chances – based on your information, analyses, statistics, observation, skill and other factors that form your opinion – say 60% (or 0.6). The fair odds for the victory of the Team A based on your assumption would be 100% / 60% (or equally 1 / 0.60) = 1.67. The sports betting company thus offers the odds, which are higher (1.8) than the minimum odds (1.67), which would be yet acceptable for you (i.e. the fair odds). Therefore it is advantageous for you to make the bet, since your expected return is positive and your edge is exactly 1.8 / 1.67 – 1 = 0.08 = 8%.
A three paragraph passage in his article noted that "Rays pitcher Sergio Romo struck out the side against the Angels on Saturday, then struck out three more batters in 1 1/3 innings the following afternoon. It was an unusual pairing of performances for one small reason: Romo had never struck out three batters on consecutive days before. And it was an unusual pairing of performances for one massive, potentially paradigm-shifting reason: Romo served as the modern era’s first designated “opener.”

A successful sports betting strategy begins with managing your bankroll. To make a living betting sports, you must treat it as you would any other business. The old saying is that you should not use your rent money to bet with. That is true. But if you're betting for a living it is equally true that you must not use your gambling bankroll to pay the rent.
That 60% betting record (with the odds of -110 that is traditional for against the spread bets in football) will leave you with a profit of $160. Think about it—your $600 profit from your 6 winning bets minus the $440 you lost on losing bets leaves $160. It took you $1,100 to win $160, meaning you have to bet $6.87 to win $1 on average. So you see the small differences between a 52.4% winning rate and a 60% winning rate—inside those 7.3 percentage points lies hundreds of dollars in profit.

Our expert handicapper’s main goal is to provide our members with knowledgeable sports betting advice that he draws from his past sports experiences, as well as various assortments of intangible factors, historical figures, statistics, and a wide array of trends all as a means by which to increase their bankroll.  Though this formula cannot be released you can feel confident that comprised of dozens of essential tools that ultimately ensure its success rate.
Although betting while sober seems like common sense, you’d be surprised how many people bet on sports under the influence. Is it a coincidence that the Las Vegas casinos offer free alcoholic drinks while you are gambling? I don’t think so. I don’t want to sound like your mother here, but betting while under the influence will impair your judgement and should definitely be avoided if you want to become a winning sports bettor.
Then, where should we place Sports Betting? Some of you may have noticed that, the fundamental difference between Lottery / Casino and Equity / Fixed Income is whether you are controlled by house or not. Lottery & Casino is Zero Sum game and the winning rate is controlled by the organizer or house. If you compete with the house under such circumstance it’s impossible to win in long-term. On the other hand, Equity / Fixed Income is not Zero Sum but as long as the underlying products perform well you can win endlessly. When it comes to Sports Betting, there are Bookmakers . We compete with them in Zero Sum world and off-course they have built-in margin called Over-round (or Vigorish or Juice), which is up to 10%. Means, theoretically you will lose this % long-term, then it can be positioned between Casino and Equity. However, bear it in mind that Casino is basically governed by law of probability (when you throw dice, the probability of 1 is always 1/6) but Sports Betting is largely governed by Skill (nobody can accurately predict the Barcelona’s next win % against Real Madrid). For this particular points, you may want to see Beat Bookmakers Nicely By Knowing How They Make Money ; 

Football is the most popular sport on Earth and bookmakers take an incredible number of bets on it every year. Almost all bookies offer 24-hour live soccer betting but some do a better job than others when it comes to giving punters the full package. The very best football betting sites post great odds on a huge variety of soccer markets and have regular promotions such as bore draw and other cashback bonuses. For example, if there is a football match being played anywhere then Paddy Power will certainly be offering all sorts of profitable betting opportunities on it. They also have their “2 Up – You Win” promotion that is specifically geared towards football bettors. If the team you bet on takes a two-goal lead at any point in the game then you automatically win. What a great deal for football fans!!
La Russa made Eckersley his closer, and he developed the "MLB sapien" system that was choreographed to use the role sparingly. The engineering marvel put little to no stress on the pitchers arm in a single outing.  Thus resulting in that arm being used in consecutive games. Eckersley went on to establish records for relievers with a 0.61 ERA in 1990, and did what most thought was impossible then, and in truth now, by earning the American League Cy Young and MVP awards when he saved 51 games in 1992.
There are currently three pre-filed bills ahead of the 2019 legislative session: BR 15, BR 29 and BR 320. That’s indicative of what’s expected to be a legitimately serious push for legalization of various forms gaming in the Bluegrass State in the coming year. Notably, BR 15 calls for the Kentucky Lottery Corporation to establish a sports wagering regulatory infrastructure.
Touts often claim to be able to hit 60% or higher, but as I explain in my essay on Bayesian Probability, anyone who tells you that their long term expected winning percentage is higher than 60% is deluding themselves. Ten or more years ago a sharp handicapper could win about 60% long term but those days are over, as odds makers have become more savvy in the past decade or so. For a bettor to claim a greater than 60% long term expected win percentage, that would be mean that Vegas would have to consistently release lines with egregious errors, and that simply just does not happen often enough nowadays for claims of a greater than 60% long term expected win percentage. Any short term win rates of around 60% or higher are simply due to blind, short-term luck. For instance, last year (2016) in the first season using a new NFL play-by-play model, Dr. Bob Sports’ NFL Best Bet sides were an incredible 66-26 (71.7%), but that record was enhanced by winning a very large percentage of close games (31-12 on Best Bets decided by 7 points or less) rather than splitting the close ones. It still would have been a great season on NFL Best Bet sides (62%) if the close games had been 50% but I still can’t expect the new model to win 60%-plus on sides based on that one season – although the play-by-play model back-tested at a very profitable 56% winners.
Wow, 2018 flew by and was a great year in sports overall. We enjoyed a lot of success with the free picks here at The Sports Geek and have grown our great team of handicappers. 2019 is shaping up to be a great year with new experts joining the team and a new website to launch early in the year. We will continue to grow our Daily Fantasy Sports section of the website, which has really taken off in the last year. We are looking forward to helping you have a successful and enjoyable 2019!

Anything I can make guaranteed profit on. It is a Catch 22 though. The bigger leagues (NFL, NBA, MLB, NHL) have more people wagering on them, so the odds of finding lines that differ between sports books is tougher. This is because the betting line only moves when too many people are wagering on 1 side. A $100 will have little to no impact on a Super Bowl line that already has millions in the pot. As long as Vegas has close to equal action on each side, they profit every time. The lesser known sports, have less money wagered on each game, so it's easier to spot vastly different lines between different sports books.
The Cronje Affair was an India-South Africa Cricket match fixing scandal that went public in 2000.[57] It began in 1996 when the-then captain of the South African national cricket team, Hansie Cronje, was convinced by Mukesh "John" Gupta, an Indian bookmaker, to throw a match during a Test in Kanpur, India. The scheme was discovered when Delhi police recorded illegal dealings between Indian bookmaker Sanjay Chawla and Cronje. According to the Telegraph in 2010, Cronje was paid off a total of £65,000 from Gupta.[58]
MyBookie.ag is the top sportsbooks online. They have plenty of advantages over their competitors starting with a generous deposit bonus of 50% Up To $1,000 . The number of betting markets provided is so vast that Mybookie is the betting site that you can “truly bet on anything.” They offer free credit and debit card deposits. Deposits and withdrawals are also fast and free of charge if you’re using cryptocurrencies.
It wasn’t that long ago that the popular and mainstream sports were all we could bet on. Finding a bookmaker willing to take wagers on the “minor” sports was nearly impossible. This is no longer the case though, as these days we can bet on virtually any sport that’s played professionally: even the most obscure ones. Although these don’t offer the same advantages that we’ve outlined above, one big advantage they have is that the bookmakers don’t give them the same level of attention.
He scored a goal and had five chances created in Manchester City's 3-0 win at Shakhtar Donetsk, and finished with 24.5 fantasy points. His team is the second-biggest favorite this week, and I don't think Silva is as risky as Aguero. I'd be really surprised if Silva doesn't start, and there will also be other good options available in this tier on Wednesday in case he doesn't.
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